The Water Quality Research Foundation (WQRF) partnered with the Madison (WI) Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) to study a potential alternative to softener bans for use in areas with high chloride levels. MMSD used the results of this study to develop a softener efficiency optimization and replacement program that can serve as a national model for other utilities facing similar challenges. Conducted over two periods in 2013 and 2014, the study examined four sewersheds in two neighborhoods. The study concluded that on average, optimization could reduce chlorides by 27 percent, while replacement programs could reduce chlorides by 47 percent. The final report from the chloride reduction study is available from WQRF.